Typical Exams By H. M. FAHMY






Time: 45 minutes

Answer the following questions .

1-Match RHS with LHS {4 marks}

(a)[  ] Attractions between neighbouring molecules in a gas                         (A) Brownian motion
(b)[  ] Spreading of a gas in a room                                                                     (B) Diffusion
(c)[  ]A homogeneous mixture                                                                             (C) Inelastic collision
(c)[  ]Movement of microscopic particles dispersed in a fluid                        (D) Solution
(e)[  ]Characterised by a net loss of momentum                                                (E) van der Walls forces
(f)[  ]For water at 100 oC , this is 760 mm Hg                                                      (F) Critical temperature
(g)[  ]Instrument to measure resistance of flow of a liquid                              (H) Miscible
(h)[  ]Above this point gas cannot be liquified                                                ( I ) Vapour pressure
                                                                                                                                  ( J ) Viscometer
                                                                                                                                  (G)Boiling point

2-What is the density expressed in g/l of CO2 gas at 100 oC and 0.5 atm.{3 marks}

3-Which gas will diffuse more rapidly CO2 or NO2 comment.{2 marks}

4-Ethanol(B.p. 78.5 oC) and water form a constant B.p. mixture having a B.p. of 78.2 oC and a composition of 95.6% ethanol. Draw the vapour pressure composition and the boiling point composition diagrams of this system and give your comments. {4 marks}

5-What of the following observations illustrates colligative properties {2marks}

a-Pure benzene boils lower than water by 20 oC

b-The taste of 0,1 M solution of NaCl is different from that of 0.1 M glucose solution at room temperature

c-Saturated water with salt boils at higher temperature than pure water at 760 mm Hg

d-Pure benzoic acid freezes at 122 oC while pure water freezes at 0 oC

e-The osmotic pressure of 1.0 M NaCl is nearly twice that of 1.0 M glucose

6-Define the following by a sentence or a mathematical expression {5 marks}

a-Molal Concentration   b- Moles   c-Non ideal solution   d-The Van’t Hoff’s factor

e-Henry’s law  f-Raoult’s law  g-Osmotic pressure  h-Elevation in boiling point

i-Distribution coefficient  j-Surface tension.

Total 20 marks







Time: 45 minutes

Answer four ONLY of the following questions

 I)State wether its right or wrong                                                                        (5 marks)

1-NH4Cl suppreses the ionization of NH4OH

2-S for Al(OH)3 equals (Ks / 4)1/3

3-If DE is -ve the reaction is exothermic

4-The degree of ionization a is given by l / l

5- The units of k are Ω -1 / cm

6- The amount of heat evolved of a neutralization reaction is always equal to -13700 cal

7-For the reaction H2O(l) = H2O (v) at 100 o C Dn = -1

8-In the reaction 2CO(g) + CO(g) = 2 CO2(g) DH, DE and Dn are -ve

9-In a buffer solution pH = pK

10- Ka & Kb are ≈ a 2 C and  a equals l / l

11- The strengh of a 0.1M HCl solution = 3.65 g/l

12- Precipitation occures when S of a sparingly soluble salt exceeds its Ks

13- The pH of 0.1M HCl is 1

14-The mass of NaOH (M=40) required to prepare a 250 ml of NaOH of pH 13 is 1g

II) The resistance of a conducting solution is given by Kohlrauch’s lawII)Will a ppt be formed when a AgNO3solution of [Ag+]=10-2 M is added to a 0.02M of CH3COONa  knowing that Ks of CH3COONa is 2X10-3 .Give your answer in the form of YES or NO and WHY                                                                                                                  (5 marks)

III) To 35 ml of 0.02M acetic acid were added 10 ml of 0.05M NaOH.  What is the pH of the solution (pKa of acetic acid = 4.74) .Give your answer in the form: pH =number + log number.                                                                                                                               (5 marks)

IV)The specific conductance of 0.02N propionic acid in water iat 25 o C is 0.00044 Ω -1 cm-1 .  The equivalent conductance at infinite dilution is 440 Ω -1 cm2 g eq-1.  Calculate the acid dissociation constant and pH of  solution.                                                                                                                                                                                              (5 marks)

V)The standard heat of combustion of liquid ethanol is -326.7 Kcal at 25o C .  Calculate the heat of formation .  Given that the heat of formation of CO2 is -94.05 Kcal and that of H2O is -68.32 Kcal .                                                                                                                           (5 marks)

 Total (20 marks)






                                                             Time allowed: 2 hours

Answer Five Only of the Following Questions

1)-a-Knowing that the heat of combustion of C6H6 equals to -782 at 25 oC , calculate the change in internal energy of the reaction.

b-The specific conductivity of a saturated solution of AgCl at 20oC is 1.33 X 10-6 Ω-1 cm-1. If the ionic conductivity of Ag+ and Cl are 56.6 and 68.4 Ω-1 cm2 eq-1 respectively .  Calculate   i) Solubility

 and   ii) Solubility product.

c-Calculate the pH of a 0.2M KCN solution.  If Ka of HCN is 4.9 X 10-10 what is the degree of hydrolysis

of the salt.

d-Write brief points on one of the following

  1. i) Heat of formation     ii) Acid – base indicators

2)-a-A certain water solution has a pH of 6.8 at 60 oC.  Is this water solution acidic, basic or neutral knowing that Kw at 60 oC equals to 10-13. Explain

b-Write breif points on one of the following

i)Water is not considered as a buffer solution

ii)The common ion effect in the precipitation of a mixture containing group II cations

c-Calculate Kb for NH3(aq) if [OH] equals to 1.9 X 10-3 in a 0.2M solution.

d- The equivalent conductance of a solution of 1.02 X 10-3 g eq l-1 of acetic acid is 48.15 Ω-1 cm2at 25 oC and L∞  equals 390.7 Ω-1 cm2.  Calculate the degree of dissociation of the acid

3)-Choose the correct answer and write it in your answering book

i-Which of the following combinations would give a buffer solution

a-HNO3 + NaNO3        b-NaOH + NaNO3       c-NH4OH +NH4NO3       d-None of a,b,c

ii-Lemon juice has a pH of 2.3 the [H+] equals to

a-10-2.3            b-10 2.3            c-2.3 X 10        d-None of a,b.c

iii-The expression for Ksp for As2S3 is

a-[As2 3+ ] [S32- ]          b-[As3+]2 [S2-]            c-[As3+]3 [S2-]2             c-None of a,b,c

iv-CaSO4 has a Ksp of 3 X 10-5. In which of the following CaSO4 is most soluble

a-1M K2SO4                 b-2M CaCl2                 c-Pure H2O                 d-Same in all

v-Kb for NH3 is 2 X 10-5. Ka for NH4+ ion is

a-2 X 10-5        b-5 X 10a        c-5 X 10-10       d-2 X 10-19

vi-In which one of the following systems is the amount of stored energy is the largest under 1atm,

a-1mol H2O(l) at 0 oC b-1mol of H2O(l) at 100 oC      c-1mol H2O (g )at 100 oC      d-None of a,b,c


  1. Sc. EXAMS


Choose the correct answer alphabetic letter and write it in your answer book.

1)         If a dimer is separated in acid medium in good yield with the main product of electrolysis how many pathways can be suggested.

            a– 2 pathways              b- 3 pathways               c- 4 pathways

2)         Residual currents in polarography are known as.

            a- Non Faradaic currents          b– Faradaic currents     c- Impurity current

3)         The observed potential in RCOO+ ® RCOO. + e is 2.46 vs. HE while using TBA as mediator the potential will be .

             a- Higher         b- Lower          c- None of a & b

4)         A multiple electroactive sites organic compound is to be reduced in only one sight. The proper electrolysis technique should be

            a- CPE             b- CCE

5)         dE1/2 /dpH equals 0.0591 for

            a- 1e & 1H+    b- 2e & 2H+    c- None of a & b

6)         Convection currents are due to

            a- Concentration gradients        b- Electric field c- Disturbances

7)         The decrease in current with increase of time is

            a- Linear          b- Sinusoidal     c- Exponential

8)         The Cottrel equation is simply expressed by

            a- il µ  C         b- id µ C         c- i  µ  C/Öt     d- None of a,b & c

9)         The DME , over the limiting current plateau of a polarographic wave, behaves as

            a- A depolarized electrode        b- A completely polarized electrode

10)       One equivalent of a substance is deposited by the passage of

            a- 26.8 Ah       b-1Ah              c-1coulomb                  d- 96500/n

11)       C6H5CH3 can be converted to C6H5CHO by CeIV / CeIII system in

            a- Alkaline media          b- pH 7            c- Highly acidic medium

12)       Is the following sequence of equations in a  mediated electrochemical oxidation of benzene is missing a step

            Fe3+  +  e  =  Fe2+

            Fe2+  + H2O2  =  OH  +  OH.  +  Fe2+

  1. OH. +  C6H6  =  [ C6H5OH ].

            [C6H5OH ].  + Fe3+  =  C6H50H  +  H+  +  Fe2+

                a- Yes              b- No

13)       The DME, over the limiting current plateau , behaves as

            a- A depolarized electrode        b- A polarized electrode           c- None of a & b

14)       Hg is used as a perfect electrode for electrooxidation processes since it undergoes anodic dissolution at + 0.25 V vs. SCE

            a- Yes              b- No

15)       In a CPE experiment the decrease in current with increase of time is

            a- Linear          b- Exponential              c- Reversible

16)       A square diagram for a 2 electron and 2 proton transfer has

            a- 6 pathways & 7 intermediates           b- 6 pathways & 6 intermediates

            c- 7 pathways & 7 intermediates           d- 7 pathways & 6 intermediates

17)       The Cottrell equation simply means that

            a- i ∞ C                        b– i ∞ Ct                      c- i ∞ C√t         d- None of a, b, c

18)       Convection current is due to

            a- Concentration gradient                      c- Electric field              c- None of a,b

19)       id = nFADCb  / d

            a- Yes              b- No

20)       The Ni electrode is considered to be a powerful anode and the mechanism of indirect oxidation is through

            a- Direct reaction with Ni          b- Formation of Ni(OH)2          c- Formation of NiOOH                        c- Attack with NiO2

21)       A modified electrode can used and considered as an advanced type of external mediator

            a- Yes              b- No

22)       A mediator should be electrochemically active and with a reaction k0 > 10-1 cm s-1

            a- Yes              b- No

23)       W = QM / anF where  a is the transfer coefficient with a value 1>a>0

            a- Wrong         b- Right

24)       The Randles-Cevcik equation is id = 708 n √D t1/6 m2/3 Cb

            a- Yes              b- No

25)       Epc/2 – Epa/2 =0.056 / n for a reversible reaction

            a- Yes              b- No

26)       A pronounced difference exists between E1/2 measured by a microelectrode and a large surface electrode for  a reversible system

            a- Yes              b-No

27)       The reaction between a species and a mediator is of homogenuous nature

            a- Wrong         b- Right

28)       i – E curves from stationary electrodes are peaked while those from rotating electrodes are smooth

            a-Yes               b- No

29)       The rate of diffusion according to Fick’s first law of diffusion is p[roportional to

 dC / dx

            a- Wrong         b– Right





  1. M .FAHMY


1-         Electrolysis of an NaCl solution for 24 hours with a current of 15500A produced 4200 liter of cell liquor containing 125g/l of NaOH.  Calculate the efficiency of this process.

2-         A 10X10 cm metal plate was electroplated with 50µm nickel in an electrolyte solution containing Ni2+ions.  Calculate the time needed to produce this electroplating if a current of 2.5A was used knowing that the yield by current is 94.4%.Sp.g. of Ni = 8.9

3-         Calculate the time of electrolysis of water to produce a mixture of .0325g of hydrogen and .2591g of oxygen.

4-         Calculate the current efficiency and the energy consumption in the electrolysis of a KCl solution.  The cathode compartment contains 500 ml of KCl solution.  After the electrolysis the Cu cathode of an in series coulometer increased in mass by 5g.  In assaying the KOH concentration in the cathodic compartment 25 ml of O.1N HCl were consumed for 10 ml of catholyte.  The voltage was controlled at 4.5V.

5-         Calculate the limiting current density for an electrode at which Ag is deposited from an aqueous solution containing Ag+ of 0.1 mol / l  in the presence of excess supporting electrolyte.  The diffusion layer = 0.05 cm and D= 1.64 X 10-5 cm2 / sec .  What well happen to the limiting current if the solution is rapidly stirred.

6-         It was found recently that pyrazolo[5,1- c]triazine (1) is reduced in 2 N HCI to give the hyrazo product in 70% yield. The following data was obtained for the electrochemical reduction of 10-4 M of 1 (M.Wt 124) in acid medium.

(a) Coulometry: the potential was controlled at -1.0 V vs SCE the initial current io = 4 mA and k = 2 were obtained from log it vs log t plot.

(b)  dE 1/2 / dpH = 59 mV/pH

(c)  id at 25°C equals to 0.5 m A (m3/4 t1/6 = 1.16).

(d) C.V. of 1 showed two peaks at DEp 0.85 V with a current ip twice that of a one electron transfer.

From the above data propose a mechanism using your course knowledge, and calculate the diffusion and transfer coefficients.

7-         On the electroreduction of 5-arylidene-2thiohydantoins (T). In acid medium of pH < 7 the parent compound (X = H) showed one wave of il = 0.6mA (10-4 M). the obtained productss of electrolysis at pH 3 where TH2 and the dimer 2TH in 65% and 35% yield. Propose the mechanism of electroreduction according to a square diagram.

8-         For an ideal CPE the relation it = io e-kt is applied and the total quantity of electricity. Q is given by

Q = ò  it dt.

 (a) Show that Q = i / k (if natural logarithm is used).

 (b)  Q = io / 2.303 k if base-ten logarithm is used.

 (c) CPE oxidation of Fe (II) to Fe (III) in 1 M H2SO4 at a Pt anode at +0.8V vs SCE gives the following data:

          i, mA              t, m.          i, mA

          188                10             52.5

          164                12             39.4

          123                14             29.7

           92.8              16             22.3

construct a plot and calculate the number of mg of iron in the sample solution.

9-         Vitamin C tablets, advertised to each contain 120 mg of ascorbic acid, were analyzed by CPE coulometry. A single tablet was dissolved in 100 ml of a solution of a 0.1 M buffer of pH 6.03 with 0.25% oxalic acid, (to inhibit the autooxidation of ascorbic acid) this solution was electrolyzed at +1.09 V vs SCE according:

C6H6O6  ® C6H6O6   +   2H+  +   2e

The quantity of electricity was found to be 128.9 coulombs.  Calculate the weight of ascorbic acid in the tablet. Comment.

10-       Consider the reaction [ A + ne ® B ] where a+b = l. The flux at the electrode

A (O , t)  is given by the Butler-Volmer equation.

JA(O ,t) = i / nFA = CA (O ,t)  k°e -a  n F(E-Eo) / RT    –  CB ( O , t ) k°e(1 -a ) n F (E-Eo) /RT.

If ko  >  10-1 cm s-1 what would be the form of this equation.

If ko < 10-5 cm s-1. Suggest the forms of the respective Cyclic Voltammograms.

11-       A log plot for a species undergoing polarographic reduction gives a slope of 0.03 (dE / d log [i / id-i ] ).(a) is the process reversible in nature; (b) knowing that dE1/2 / dpH equals 60 mV pH-1. Calculate the numberof protons involved in this process; (c) assume a square diagram for the reduction of this species at pH<5.

12-       Answer three of the following including “a”(EXAM 1986)

-a- The reversibility of an electrode process is tested by the logarithmic analysis and cyclic voltammetry. Comment.

-b- “Nicholson-Shain predicted relations between various characteristics of cyclic voltammograms and scan rate for a given electrode mechanism”. Give the 8 predicted cases referred to their diagrams.

-c- Draw the square diagram for a 2e process at pH 9.

-d- Give short notes on 2 only.

(i) Cyclic voltammetry of aniline.

(ii) The use of Q =òidt to determine e in an EC reaction .

(iii) Types of currents in polarography.

13-       Answer the following question (EXAM 1988)

i- Give short notes on one of the following: a-E.C. mechanisms in C.V. b-Multielectron transfer process in C.V.

ii- What would be the form of the Butler-Volmer equation in a simple E mechanism in C.V. if ko ³ 10-l cm s-l. Draw its cyclic voltammogram.. iii- A log plot gives a slope of 0.03 Is the process reversible in nature . Knowing that dE / dpH equals 60 mV/ pH . Calculate The number of protons involved in this process. Assume a square diagram for the reduction process at pH< 5.